Urinary Infection

The urinary Infection is responsible for removing waste and excess water from the body. It consists of the bladder, the kidneys, the ureters, and the urethra.

The kidneys filter the blood and remove waste and surplus water to form urine, which then travels down the ureters and is stored in the bladder until it is ready to be passed through the urethra (urination).

The opening of the urethra is the end of the penis in males and at the front of the vagina in females. The urinary infectioncan be divided into the upper urinary infectionand the lower urinary infection. The upper urinary infectionconsists of the kidneys and the ureters, and the lower urinary infectionconsists of the bladder and the urethra.

What is a urinary infection?
A urinary infection (UTI) is an infection of any part of the urinary system. Most infections involve the lower urinary infection. UTIs are given different names depending on where they occur:

  • Bladder infection.
  • Urethra infection
  • Kidney infection
The ureters are very rarely the site of infection.

Women are more likely to develop UTIs than men, due to anatomical differences; the urethra is shorter in women than in men, and it is closer to the anus, making it more likely that bacteria are transferred to the bladder.

Causes of urinary infections
The vast majority of UTI cases are caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), usually found in the digestive system. Chlamydia and Mycoplasma bacteria can infect the urethra but not the bladder.

People of any age and sex can develop a UTI; however, some people are more at risk than others. The following factors can increase the likelihood of developing a UTI:
  • Sexual intercourse (especially if more frequent, intense, and with multiple or new partners)
  • Diabetes
  • Poor personal hygiene
  • Problems emptying the bladder completely
  • Having a urinary catheter
  • Bowel incontinence
  • Blocked flow of urine
  • Kidney stones
  • Some forms of contraception
  • Pregnancy
  • Menopause
  • Procedures involving the urinary tract
  • Suppressed immune system
  • Immobility for a long period
  • Use of spermicides and tampons
  • Heavy use of antibiotics (which can disrupt the natural flora of the bowel and urinary infection)